2023年10月25日

奇石文化杂谈系列

作者 admin

奇石是大自然中神奇的东西。 自古以来,人们就有欣赏、收藏奇石的高雅兴趣。 尤其是现在,它已经成为一种“流行”的爱好。 一般认为,凡是具有一定观赏或收藏价值,能给人以愉悦和惊喜的天然石材,都可称为“奇石”。 据不完全统计,全国各地已成立数百个奇石协会、奇石鉴赏组织。 一些地区城市成立了石材鉴赏协会,爱好者众多。 全国各地也建成了一大批奇石文化中心,数百万人喜爱奇石、欣赏奇石、收藏奇石。 现代人对石头的喜爱,更多的是观赏、研究石头,进而挖掘其商业价值。 人生如朝露,怪石无边。 古时候的人们把生活的情怀和美好寄托在奇石上,有关于“石”的美丽传说。 这种自古以来对奇石的喜爱,催生了许多美丽的轶事和传说,至今仍广为流传。

仔细一看,最古老的爱石传说应该是“女娲补天”的故事。 金代王新之《南康记》中记载:“龟眉山岩石赤红,彩绘,峨眉绣,切入云天,景如石”。昔日女娲。” 相传,远古时期,一场大雨,使得东南国家变成了沼泽地,黎民百姓因此而受苦受难。 美丽善良的女娲娘娘跑到玉皇大帝的后花园,那里有许多用五彩宝石砌成的假山。 她一块一块地取下宝石来“修复”“天空”。 因为有了奇石,天不再漏水。 蓝天下,又是一派黄莺歌舞、花红柳绿的景象。 女娲很高兴。 但仍然留下了一些彩色宝石。 太白金星老人说:不如全部送给天下,造一座山。 如果再次发生洪水,人们就有地方避难。 女娲便将许多色彩斑斓的宝石堆成一座山,这就是现在的“寿山”。 “女娲补天”的故事已历经数万年,人们经历了沧桑变迁。 当年的“寿山”,树木茂盛,但山上仍藏有许多色彩斑斓的宝石,晶莹剔透,温润发光,被称为世界上独一无二的“寿山石”。

我国古代有很多关于石头的传说,如精卫围海、木鱼石的传说等,是古人对美丽、观赏性石头的真实向往。 在经济和科技不发达的古代,人们开始喜欢上大自然赋予人类的美丽石头,并用丰富的想象力编织出各种感人至深的故事,流传至今。 对于现代人来说,这种对大自然赋予的美丽奇特的岩石和“尤物”的喜爱情结依然存在,就像人们总喜欢聆听大海的涛声一样。 当人类发育胚胎时,它们生活在母体的羊水中。 就像生活在大海里,随时聆听大海的涛声。 这是一个原始的综合体。 相信随着社会经济的发展,人们闲暇时间的增加,生活在紧张的现代社会的人们“蓦然回首,发现石头的美”。 这种对石头的热爱必然会传播给更多的人。

我国自古就有“物以类聚,人以群分”的说法。 具有相同爱好、兴趣或出于特定目的而联系在一起的群体形成了各种“圈子”。 比如,汽车爱好者可以加入“汽车圈”;摄影爱好者可以加入“摄影圈”;甚至喜欢喝酒的人也可以加入“品酒圈”等等。对于现代社会的石头爱好者来说,石头是相连的而每个人都是相似的,在收集和玩奇石的过程中,他们寻找石头、谈论石头、讨论石头、互相聊天,自然而然地志趣相投,久而久之就会成为好朋友。石头爱好者已经形成了特定的“朋友圈”,对于中国人来说,自古就有“以石交友”、“以石送友”的故事。

《史记·天子年记》记载:舜将一块天然黑玉制成簋送给禹。 禹非常喜欢,规定入一块奇石作为贡品。 唐代文学家柳宗元在柳州任职期间,就对柳州的奇石情有独钟。 他用柳州八景之一的柳江底的砚台制作了一块砚台,赠送给好友刘禹锡。 北宋文学家苏轼一生酷爱石头。 他在《求石笔记》一书中记载:公元1092年,扬州表弟德如赠他两块岭南石。 一种是绿色的,一种是白玉的。 山势蜿蜒,山脊间有云雾穿行。 。 他根据杜甫的诗句“千古秋池,潜入小洞天”,将其命名为“秋池石”。 每次看到,他都会自豪地评价:“奴才藏的秋池石,是难得的珍宝。” 这些故事都是用石头结识好朋友或作为礼物送给朋友,交流感情,增进友谊。 历史上也有利用石头、书画等共同爱好来迎击恶人的反面例子。 宋徽宗结交的朋友大多与他有相同的书画奇石爱好,如蔡京等人。 然而蔡京等人都是奸臣,宋徽宗却将他们视为不可多得的“知音”,甚至是“良师益友”。 这些人最终害了国家,害了自己。

喜爱石头的人们聚集在一起,形成一个朋友圈,是现代社会最常见的现象。 而有文化品位、有诚信、善良的人,在赏石、议石、甚至购买、收藏石头的过程中。 其中,善于识别的不仅仅是石头本身,更重要的是你所认识的圈子的性格,也就是性格正直的人。 如果遇到不诚实、品行不好的人,长期交往的话,很有可能“近红者必红”。 “近墨者黑”,会毁掉自己。 因此,在与石头结识朋友的过程中,鉴赏石头或者善于鉴定石头固然重要,但比这更重要的是善于识别圈内朋友的性格。 这比善于识别朋友更重要。 鉴定宝石更加困难、复杂和重要。

自古以来,无数文献记载了各种赏石原理和方法,供人们在赏石时参考,让人们欣赏和选择自己喜欢的宝石,或者购买和收藏自己满意、物有所值的宝石。 殊不知,这些赏石方法同样适用于认识人、考察人。

例如,人们在欣赏、挑选奇石时,首先要判断奇石是否是自然形成的。 经过人工加工或人造的奇石,其收藏价值显然大大降低。 这对于人们的社交也有启示:现代社会,随着交通和通讯工具的发展,人们的社交圈子不断扩大。 当你第一次与人交往时,首先要感受对方的言行是否自然、得体,对方的要求是否自然、得体。 自然合理。 如果对方是一个大方、行为自然的人,往往是值得深入沟通的。 相反,如果对方过于急躁、易怒,或者是功利性、目的性较强的人,在交往中就应该谨慎。 你甚至可能遇到过骗子。 在这种情况下,一点应该提高警惕,停止深入交流。

又比如,人们在欣赏和判断奇石的价值时,往往会根据奇石的完整性、完好性来判断。 显然,完整完好的奇石价值就高,而不完整或者有缺陷的奇石价值就会降低。 人们在交朋友时,也应该积极与性格良好、没有不良爱好、没有不良记录的人交往。 他们在与性格孤僻甚至有性格缺陷的人交往时也应该谨慎。 这就是赏石原理对人们的启发。

还有,奇石的欣赏价值。 中心来说,奇石的收藏价值与其欣赏价值是密切相关或成正比的。 品质不同的奇石自然收藏价值低; 同样,与人交往时,尽量寻找“志同道合的人”,“道不同勿共事”,尤其是性格截然不同、没有共同爱好和兴趣的人。 尽量远离,否则,会给自己带来更多的麻烦。 奇石的“硬度”也是奇石鉴赏的一个重要“指标”,因为奇石的硬度是由奇石的质地决定的,直接关系到奇石藏品的保存价值。 奇石硬度高,石质密度高,质感好,观赏价值也很大。 至此,对于人们日常交往的启示也是:人与人交往应该有原则、有底线。 没有硬性原则和底线的人,交往时要谨慎。 具有优秀品质的人,应该有好石般的毅力。 对于石材鉴赏,除了检查石材本身的品质外,有经验的行家还需要看石材的“收藏家”。 一块石头根据原始收藏者的不同,会有不同的附加值。 与人交往也是如此。 不仅要看这个人本身,还要看这个人经常交往的人。 这也是非常重要的。 “玉不琢不成材”。 对于自己,要不断修养自己; 对于朋友,也应该善意地指出对方的缺点,共同进步。

人们在寻石、赏石的过程中,不仅要寻找、欣赏奇石,更要从中学习认识人的道理。 在找到自己喜欢的奇石的同时,还应该找到更多的良师益友。 只有这样,才能将奇石文化演绎得更加精彩、完美。

自古以来,人们的生活就离不开“石头”:它可以作为最原始、常见的工具、建筑材料甚至武器,而美丽且具有观赏价值的“奇石”更是受到人们的喜爱。 人们很高兴发现、欣赏和收集这些美丽的岩石。 无论是对普通石头的利用,还是欣赏、把玩、收集“石头”形成奇石的文化,都贯穿了人类文明的历史,给了我们很多启发。

纵观人类几千年有文字记载的文明发展史,可以说也是一部“石”文化从简单到复杂、从低级到高级的悠久历史。 人类祖先从旧石器时代起就开始使用天然石材作为工具和武器,然后在新石器时代开始制造各种石器; 从人类早期定居营地时简单地使用石头作为建筑材料,到古建筑中使用各种石头。 从精雕细刻的石材到现代豪华建筑中广泛使用的花岗岩和大理石装饰材料; 从出土墓葬中简单的石器装饰品,到后来精美的石雕、宝石工艺品; 从人们使用各种石器,到至今仍在使用的石磨、石碾,各种石头一直伴随着人类从荒野走向现代文明,走向遥远的未来。 古今中外的一切用石行为和用石理论,构成了博大精深的“石文化”的基本内容。

抛开“用”石的历史不谈,“赏石”的历史可以追溯到三千多年前。 《周礼》中“周公植壁于座”的记载,是赏奇石行为的起源; 真正的奇石文化始于孔子时代,《论语·永业章》云:“仁者乐山,智者乐水”,将人们的道德才能附着在山水之上。 孔子的弟子子贡问孔子:“君子怎敢重玉而轻民呢?” 由此产生了玉有五德的著名说法,即仁、义、礼、智、信。 这些都是古代石文化的重要内容。

对于现代人来说,除了使用天然石材外,还善于使用各种机械加工的石材,甚至“人造大理石”等人工合成的“石材”。 这些人类智慧和现代技术的贡献值得认可。 然而,对于各种“奇石”来说,更应该注重的是自然形成,而不是添加这些高科技智慧。 石头的形成需要很长时间。 这块奇石因努力吸收日月精华而成​​为传奇。 如果没有一颗平静的心,奇石的商业价值有多贵呢? 对你有什么用? 了解石材的人应该知道“纯石”的价值。 纯真和真诚是一个人应该具备的品质。 市场上,有些人为了牟取暴利,甚至制造出各种“假天然石材”,违背了赏石、诚信的古老传统。 这些行为如果不加以遏制,将会影响石材市场的健康发展。 因此,“奇石”爱好者应该共同抵制这些行为,净化石材鉴赏市场。

中国是东方文化的发源地和典型代表,也是东方赏石文化的发源地。 千百年来,形成了独特而悠久的奇石文化。 自古以来,各种“奇石”都吸引着帝王将相、文人墨客,甚至普通百姓的目光。 他们在寻找、把玩、鉴赏、收藏奇石的过程中,留下了大量的文章、字画,形成了识别奇石的理论和方法,形成了博大精深的奇石文化。 对于现代社会来说,一大批鉴赏奇石、奇石的组织和机构,出版了数百种“奇石”或与奇石相关的文化刊物,研究和传播奇石文化知识,而真正的文字记载是从什么时候开始的呢?奇石文化的记载是从什么时候开始的? 关于什么?

就天然石材的欣赏和收藏文化而言,中国历史上就有文字记载,至少可以追溯到三千多年前的春秋战国时期。 据《括子》记载:“宋时有一愚人,在五台东发现燕子石,归来藏之,以为是大宝。周宾客闻之,发现之。” 其实,早在商周时期,作为赏玉活动的赏玉活动,作为石文化的先导和前奏,就已经十分盛行。 据史料记载:周武王伐国时“得老宝石一万四千,玉佩八亿”。 《山海经》和《轩辕黄帝传》也记载黄帝是我国“用玉第一人”。 由于玉石的产量太少,而且又十分珍贵,所以用“美石”来代替也是情理之中的事。 因此,中国的赏石文化本来就是赏玉文化的衍生和发展。 《说文》云:“玉,石之美也。” 这就把玉石归入了石头的范畴。 于是,奇石常常被列入宝玉石之列,成为具有地方特色的贡品。 对于奇石文化的确切文字记载,还有战国时期《尚书》中的一篇《愚公》,具体描述了各地区的山川分布、交通运输、物产状况和贡品等级等。 。 这说明先秦时期的统治者对“怪石”有着浓厚的兴趣,并有一定的需求。

随着我国奇石文化的发展,相信在不久的将来,将会产生更多的奇石文化作品,比如物品、书法、绘画等艺术品。 人们会对如何寻找奇石、如何鉴赏识别、如何收藏甚至如何投资、交易进行更详细的书面讨论。 对于更多的赏石新手来说,他们不仅需要这些文化知识,更需要人们系统地总结和提炼赏石的心境、经验和感悟,将赏石融入生活。 只有把赏石与调节人的心情、启发人做人做事、培养高尚情操结合起来,才能形成更深层次的石文化,更好地满足人们对石文化的需求。

随着基本的生活问题得到解决,越来越多的人开始崇尚自然,渴望回归自然。 “花园没有石头就不美丽,房子没有石头就不雅致”。 以天然山石作为庭院的主要景观已越来越受到人们的喜爱。 假山瀑布、小桥流水、亭台楼阁、树木花卉和建筑等,共同营造出人们向往的和谐舒适的环境空间。 园中各种奇石的美丽与雄伟,展现出山峦、峰峦、山峦,使人向往奇观。 涡洞交错、曲折迂回等,给人以种种遐想。 太湖石之美,常见于文人墨客的案头,山峦叠嶂,洞洞透明。 它是和谐、智慧、精致、财富的象征。 赏石爱好者对它特别喜爱,甚至痴迷。 人们喜欢在花园和家里添加奇怪的石头。 这并不是现代人独有的爱好,而是自古以来就有的传统。 奇石与花园和住宅有着原始的关系。

事实上,正是因为“园圃”(早期“园林”之名)的出现,赏石文化才在造园实践中开始得到长足发展。 也正是因为如此,从秦汉到魏晋南北朝,关于奇石的文字记载大多局限于皇家宫殿和各类园林。 例如秦始皇的阿房宫、西汉的未央宫、上林花园、汉梁孝王的兔园(梁园)等,都大量使用了装饰或建造假山的观赏石。 即使到了战乱不断的东汉三国、魏晋南北朝,一些达官贵人也非常注重在深宅、庭院、寺庙中摆放石块、园林绿化、感伤之物。 南朝建康同泰寺前的三块山水石也被冠以三品的称号,俗称“三品石”。 南齐文惠王在建康筑“轩圃”。 其“建筑、寺观、塔楼、人物,皆奇石奇景,奇景奇景”(《南齐文惠公子列传》)。 早在1986年4月,考古人员就在山东发现了北齐天宝元年(公元550年)卫威烈将军石翠芬的墓。 墓内壁画多有奇峰异石。 第一幅描绘了古墓主人的生活场景。 由庭院内两块相对的景观石衬托。 石质薄、陡、皱,与树木相映衬,表现出较高的造园和石材装饰技艺。 。

时代在不断发展,科学技术也在不断进步。 通过现代科学技术,人们可以模仿各种异国情调的花园和居室装饰材料。 现代制造的精美家具、家电等充斥在人们的卧室里,但这并不影响奇石、园林与家居之间由来已久的联系,也不影响人们对自然、生态的追求。 越是在钢筋水泥的建筑里,人们似乎越渴望绿色生态植物; 高科技制造的装饰材料越来越多如今,人们似乎越来越寻找天然的奇石,只有天然形成的奇石才能给生活在浮躁喧嚣社会的人们一些精神上的安慰。 相信在不久的将来,奇石会在花园和家居中更加流行。 应用范围广泛。

由于喜爱和收藏各种奇石的人很多,为了获得自己喜欢的奇石,人们要么亲自到山野溪边采摘,要么去市场购买,要么交换。和朋友。 人们希望收集更多自己喜欢的宝石。 奇怪的岩石。 对于顶级收藏家来说,稀有宝石的收藏往往是无价的。 据媒体报道,目前我国奇石市场上有四件“亿元奇石”:包括北京收藏家的玛瑙石“旭日”、内蒙古的玛瑙石“鸡出”、玛瑙石等。来自银川收藏家的石头。 石刻《岁月》、《中华疆土》奇石来自北京收藏家。 这些奇石首先被私人收藏家在自然界中发现,随后被相关机构收藏,并被媒体“铺天盖地”宣传,使得这些奇石的价格达到了亿元人民币。 奇石本身的观赏价值、背后的收藏和投资价值,以及媒体的报道甚至炒作,让更多的人加入到奇石收藏和投资的行列中。 中国人收藏奇石的历史文化可以追溯到远古时期,中国人自古就有爱好、收藏奇石的文化习惯。

由于奇石的自然形成已有数千万年甚至更久的历史,远远早于人类的历史,因此,奇石收藏是人类收藏、欣赏的古玩艺术品中历史最悠久的。 例如,晚唐画家孙伟的《高逸图》、宋代皇帝赵佶的《翔龙石图》中都可以看到奇石人物的身影。 它们反映了赏石在当时社会生活中的影响。 回想起来,我国的赏石文化始于春秋战国时期。 战国时期的《尚书·禹贡》记载:“泰山山谷产奇石,为贡品”。 最著名的典故就是卞和和“和氏璧”的故事,这也说明从那时起,人们就对石头产生了兴趣。 具有较高的鉴赏能力和雕刻加工能力。

一般认为,赏石文化盛于唐宋,盛于明清,发展于近代。 南北朝之前,“奇石”的收藏处于朦胧时期。 比如被后世文人尊为赏石鼻祖的陶渊明,就只拥有一块“醒石”。 唐代集石风潮的主要标志是具有艺术气质的文人取代帝王贵族,成为赏石界的主流。 他们把奇石介绍给人们,把它们引入书房、客厅,闲暇时欣赏,受到诗词的启发。 明清时期,奇石文化进一步发展。

然而,真正的赏石文化春天是在我国改革开放、人民生活水平普遍提高之后才到来的。 在古代,玩奇石的人大多仅限于名人和上层人士,普通人很少“玩石头”。 现在,随着人们闲暇时间的增加,我国的奇石文化已经成为一种普遍的流行文化。 全国各地成立了数百个奇石协会或奇石研究会。 越来越多的人喜爱奇石,奇石也逐渐发展成为一种具有巨大发展潜力的新兴文化产业。

当今社会,打开各类有关奇石文化的媒体杂志,都会有很多有关奇石鉴赏、收藏、鉴定的文章。 网上还有更多文章。 其中不乏现代石材爱好者撰写的优秀文章。 他们谈论着奇石的历史。 文化,探讨各种奇石的鉴别方法,表达赏石的各种心情和感悟。 历史上,最著名的第一部赏石作品当属中国历史上唐代著名诗人白居易的《太湖》。 《石头记》。

白居易诗词有3000余首,有《双石》、《太湖石》、《荷花石》等许多石篇,还有文学理论《太湖石》。 晚年辞官隐居洛阳,与石为友。 作为诗人,白居易在欣赏各种奇石时,更多地注入了自己的想象、联想和精神寄托,从欣赏奇石中引出了对人生的各种感悟。 说起“太湖石”,就不能不提中国历史上著名的石材收藏家牛僧儒。 牛僧孺与石相爱。 从官员到宰相,他一生热爱文学,写有《玄怪录》。 牛僧孺为官清正。 他除了从政之外,只爱藏石、赏石,尤其是太湖石。 牛僧孺常与白居易坐在石头上讨论道教。 牛僧孺曾坦言:“站在公众的角度,我们要仔细地观察、观察对方,怎么可能是造物主有意为之呢?有没有可能因偶然而凝聚胚胎而成功呢?但是,依然没有改变。”在过去的几千万年里,我们被困在大海的角落或者湖底,最高的也只有几个人,最严重的都快有上千年的历史了。一旦我们不带鞭子来,我们就不带鞭子来,我们会为奇怪的事情而战。” 为了纪念两人的友谊,记录牛僧孺对石头的热爱,白居易特于会昌三年(843年)五月写下了著名的《太湖石志》,简明而深刻地阐述了牛僧孺对石头的理论和见解。宝石的储存和鉴赏方法。 ,从而增强了牛僧孺在古石坛上的影响力。 牛僧孺收藏的奇石数量巨大,其中不少都是优秀的作品,既有抽象的,也有具象的。 它们形神兼备,独一无二。 因此,牛僧孺被白居易视为唐代集石大师。 白居易为牛僧孺题写的《太湖石记》也成为千古名篇。

探究“太湖石”为何成为赏石的永恒杰作,对现代人有着深刻的启发。 首先,白居易有深厚的文学功底,对奇石有独特的爱好和理解; 更重要的是,他和集石大师牛僧儒成了好朋友,经常和牛大师一起探讨奇石文化、玩耍。 各种各样的石头收藏丰富了我的思想。 It is precisely because of this that I wrote a masterpiece that will last forever, allowing more stone lovers to feel the beauty after reading it, absorb the nutrition of stone appreciation, and spread the culture of strange stones. For modern people, in order to create excellent works of stone appreciation, they need to deeply love strange stones and constantly communicate with stone appreciators. Only then can they write beautiful articles that have been passed down through the ages like Bai Juyi, and make new contributions to the development of my country’s strange stone culture. 贡献。

In modern society, after thousands of years of cultural baptism, it has entered a period of prosperous development of strange stone culture. As the saying goes: “In prosperous times, collection is important, in troubled times, gold is important.” With the stability and prosperity of society, the craze for collecting strange stones has gradually swept across the land of China. , Huanglong jade has increased tens of thousands of times in six years, and is called a “crazy stone” by the industry. Since ancient times, there has been a saying in China that “gold has a price, but strange stones are priceless.” With the rise of collecting culture, collecting strange stones has become fashionable. In the past 20 years, strange stones have become a new product that collectors are eager to collect in my country. In just over 20 years, the price of strange stones has continued to rise, from a few hundred yuan to tens of thousands of yuan. The country has also produced the “Four Big Strange Stones” worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Throughout the history of the development of strange stone culture, it is no accident that a modern economically prosperous society has entered a prosperous period of collecting strange stone culture. Historically, a period of economic and cultural prosperity and social stability was also a period of prosperity of strange stone culture.

Although the origin of strange stone culture was not in the Tang Dynasty, its development and prosperity was in the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty was a dynasty with relatively prosperous economic and cultural development in the history of our country. It was also a period when China’s stone appreciation culture and art flourished. Numerous literati actively participated in searching for and appreciating natural strange stones. The larger and strange stones were used in gardening, and the “small but ingenious ones” were placed in the living room. They were recorded in poems and eulogized in articles, making the appreciation of strange stones more interesting. The strong humanistic color has created a new stage of Chinese stone appreciation culture. Niu Sengru and Li Deyu, who served as prime ministers in the Tang Dynasty, were both influential literati and stone collectors at that time. The strange rocks and exotic flowers and trees in the “Pingquan Villa” built by Li Deyu were extremely famous at that time, and the strange rocks from all over the country were said to be “infinitely exquisite”. The poet Wang Jian’s “Twelve Ponds Pavilion” has reached a relatively high level in gardening art and landscape stones.

In the Song Dynasty, social economy and culture continued to prosper, and the culture of strange stones developed rapidly, thus creating a golden age of strange stone art. Some data show that the strange stone culture of the Northern Song Dynasty has spread as far as Japan, inspiring the Japanese idea of ​​​​appreciating “water stones”. Emperor Huizong of the Northern Song Dynasty established the “Hua Shi Gang” and became the largest stone collector in the country. Under the influence of the emperor’s nobles, the culture of stone appreciation in the Song Dynasty developed further, and many monographs on stone appreciation appeared, such as Du Shao’s “Yunlin Stone Book” and Fan Chengda’s “Taihu Stone Chronicles” , Chang Mao’s “Xuanhe Stone Book”, Yuyang Gong’s “Yuyang Stone Book”, etc.

In the history of the Tang and Song Dynasties, those who liked to appreciate rocks and write poems praising strange rocks were all literati or high-ranking officials and nobles. Their common characteristics were: they had cultural knowledge, affluent time and social wealth. Therefore, in today’s prosperous period of social economy, the first people who appreciate and hide stones are also people with culture, taste, certain leisure time and economic foundation. I believe that with the development of economy and the prosperity of culture, more and more people will Will join the hobby of viewing and hiding stones.

The mood of admiring stones is pleasant, but people in noisy cities long for an idyllic life. Therefore, adding a few strange stones to the courtyard and living room can satisfy people’s desire to yearn for nature and return to nature. Throughout the history of our country’s stone appreciation culture for thousands of years, more and more texts record people’s mood and experience of stone appreciation. But behind this, there are also records of people who were addicted to “stones” and caused troubles and lost their ambitions by playing with things. Emperor Huizong Zhao Ji of the Song Dynasty became a typical example of people who were addicted to “stones” and lost their country.

Huizong of Song Dynasty was born in 1082 AD and died in 1135 AD. When he first became emperor, he was diligent in his administration, but later he fell in love with calligraphy, painting, and strange stones. Among them, Huizong’s biggest hobby was strange stones, which led him directly astray. According to historical records, in order to build the Jinling West Palace, Huizong sent people to collect Taihu stones from the south of the Yangtze River. These various stones aroused his keen interest and he played with them day and night. Subsequently, he set up special agencies in Suzhou and Hangzhou to search for the so-called “Hua Shi Gang”. “Song History Zhu Zhuan” records that during the Zhenghe period, Zhu obtained a huge Taihu stone and carried it on a giant ship. There were thousands of slaves. In the prefectures and counties he passed through, water gates were demolished, bridges were demolished, and city walls were demolished. Also chiseled. After the stone arrived in Bianjing, Huizong named it “Shen Yun Zhaogong Stone” with a stroke of his pen.

Huizong loved gardening with strange stones, and his “representative work” was the grand and exquisite royal garden Genyue. Yue Ke’s “History” said that Huizong planned to build Genyue, and the eunuchs came up with the idea to collect strange stones and trees from all over the country. This period of history is the “Huashi Gang” mentioned in “Water Margin”, which aroused huge public outrage and even led to Fang La and other peasants revolted. Huizong Zhao Ji defeated the country by playing with stones. In order to satisfy his personal hobby of playing with stones, he quarried 4,600 Taihu stones from Jiangnan just for the Jingling West Palace. The huge expenditure eventually left the national treasury empty. In the end, he could not escape the fate of the exiled king. He was The Jin people were kidnapped and imprisoned for nine years, and died in a foreign country, which became a tragedy in history for being addicted to “stones”.

Zhao Ji, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty, was so obsessed with strange stones that he did not hesitate to use the power of the whole country to satisfy his hobby. His fault did not lie in the strange stones themselves, but Huizong personally did not regard strange stones as a hobby and could only use them after work and leisure time. You should not play with it without restraint, but you should not reward it without restraint, which will eventually harm the country and yourself. Just like corrupt officials in modern society, who commit corruption crimes such as coveting antiques, calligraphy and paintings, this is not the fault of the antiques themselves, but the people’s failure to grasp the degree. This has a profound enlightenment for modern stone lovers: no matter how beautiful the strange stones are, they can only be used while working. I play with it in moderation and collect according to my ability. The beauty of a strange stone lies in the way it touches your soul rather than in possessing it. If you lose your sense and buy and collect strange stones, it will definitely lead people to the abyss of playfulness and despair. This is obviously contrary to the healthy, civilized, positive and upward culture of appreciation and collection of strange stones. Stone lovers should resolutely abandon it. Our strange stone culture in order to achieve sustained and healthy development.

In modern society, the culture of strange stones has developed tremendously. A large number of people appreciate, store, and even invest in, and buy and sell rocks. They have developed a series of principles and methods, and even use modern instruments to detect various rocks. Many modern media have various introductions to this. The method of appreciating rocks is not an invention of modern people. There are methods and principles of appreciating rocks in ancient times. The earliest or most famous written record of the methods of appreciating rocks comes from Mi Fu in the Song Dynasty.

Mi Fu (character Yuan Si) of the Northern Song Dynasty was a famous calligrapher and painter at that time, and also the most famous stone collector and stone appreciator at that time. Not only was he known as “Midi” by the Chinese because of his love of stones and his worship of stones, but he also created a set of theoretical principles regarding the appearance of stones, namely “thin, transparent and leaky” which have been used by later generations for a long time. “, Wrinkle” four-character formula. The earliest record of the “four-character formula” of Mifu Xiangshi is in the fragment of “Yuyang Stone Pu” written by Yuyang Gong of the Song Dynasty: “The method of Mifu Xiangshi has four words”, namely “beautiful, thin, elegant, “Through”, in the Ming Dynasty, the writer Yuan Hongdao said in his book “Tianmu”: “The so-called beauty, thinness, wrinkles and transparency of Minangong are probably due to the extraordinary changes in its body and stone.”. At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Li Yu, the opera theorist and writer, stated in his book “Xian Qing Ou Ji”: “To express the beauty of small stones, the words “transparent, leaky, and thin” are the most important. He removed “showy” and “wrinkled”. The word “leak” was added for the first time. During the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty, Zheng Banqiao, one of the “Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou”, integrated many theories into one furnace and refined the four-character secret of Mi Fu’s stone appreciation: “thin, wrinkled, leaky”. ,through”. Since then, these four characters have been passed down to this day as the secret of Mi Fu’s phase stone. The four-character formula of “thin, wrinkled, leaky, and transparent” Xiangshi is a high-level summary of the formal beauty of strange stones formed by the continuous development, improvement and perfection of ancient Chinese literati for hundreds of years.

Due to the changes of the times, the increase of stone products for people to appreciate and the continuous development of strange stone culture, the concept of stone appreciation is also constantly explored and updated. Nowadays, “shape, color, quality and pattern” have become people’s new evaluation standards. Others summarize stone appreciation into ten words: “thin, transparent, leaky, wrinkled, shape, color, quality, meaning, seat, and name.” It is believed that as the types of people collecting strange stones continue to increase and people’s interests and hobbies become more extensive, people’s methods and principles of stone appreciation and stone collection will continue to be enriched and improved. More and more stone appreciation principles and methods will continue to be introduced. It will continue to be compiled into new texts and pictures, and even more high-tech means and scientific indicators will appear, such as the refractive index and density of jade, etc., which will continue to enrich our country’s strange stone culture and promote the development of strange stone culture. Healthy and sustainable development.